Birding the Roof of Africa

A Tropical Birding Custom Tour

2 March – 25 March 2008

Leader: Ken Behrens

All photos by Ken Behrens

Spot-breasted Lapwing - an Ethiopian endemic

Abyssinian Woodpecker

Sunset in the Ethiopian highlands


March 1      Addis Ababa – Gefersa Reservoir – Lake Chelelaka. Night in Addis.
March 2      Addis Ababa – Suluta Plains – Debre Libanos. Night at Debre Libanos.
March 3      Debre Libanos – Jemmu Valley. Night at Debre Libanos
March 4      Debre Libanos – Jemmu Valley – Debre Birhan. Night in Debre Birhan.
March 5      Debre Birhan – Ankober – Mhelka Gebdu. Night in Ankober.
March 6      Ankober – Mhelka Gebdu – Afar Plains – Awash. Night in Awash.
March 7      Awash NP. Night in Awash.
March 8      Awash NP. Night at Bilen Lodge
March 9      Awash – Langano. Night in Langano.
March 10    Langano – Abiata-Shala NP – Wondo Genet. Night in Wondo Genet.
March 11    Wondo Genet. Night in Wondo Genet.
March 12    Wondo Genet – Dinsho. Night in Dinsho.
March 13    Dinsho – Goba – Sannetti Plateau (Bale NP). Night in Goba.
March 14    Goba – Sof Omar. Night in Goba.
March 15    Goba – Sannetti Plateau (Bale NP) – Negele. Night in Negele.
March 16    Negele – Wadera forest – Liben Plains. Night in Negele.
March 17    Negele – Filtu – Liben Plains. Night in Negele.
March 18    Negle – Yabello. Night in Yabello.
March 19    Yabello – Mega. Night in Yabello.
March 20    Yabello area. Night in Yabello.
March 21    Yabello – Arba Minch – Nechisar NP. Night in Arba Minch.
March 22    Nechisar NP. Night in Arba Minch.
March 23    Arba Minch – Nechisar NP – Awassa. Night in Awassa.
March 24    Awassa – Abiata-Shala NP – Ziway. Night in Ziway.
March 25    Ziway – Addis Ababa. Night in Addis Ababa.

Abyssinian LongclawIntroduction

Ethiopia is a beautiful country with a proud history. Although most of the people engage in subsistence agriculture, the country is far from the dust-blown land of famine in the Western stereotype. Ethiopia boasts some of Africa’s tallest mountains, lush highland forests, vast agricultural uplands, the epic rift valley and its tremendous lakes, and vast savannas. Ethiopia lies at a crossroads of avian biodiversity. It holds at least 30 endemics, and possibly as many as 49, depending of what taxonomy you use. Ethiopia is also part of Africa’s northeast arid zone, and supports 100 species restricted to this area of endemism. Dozens of north African and east African species come into contact in Ethiopia and nowhere else. At least 850 species have been recorded in the country, and this list is sure to grow, particularly if more observers visit the remote frontiers of this vast country. Although it lacks some of the mammalian megafauna of its southern neighbors, Ethiopia has an impressive list of mammals, including remarkable endemics like Mountain Nyala and Simien Wolf.

This trip was tremendously successful, netting 582 species, including nearly every Ethiopian and Abyssinian endemic, a gamut of northeastern Africa arid zone endemics, and a range of other incredible species. One particular highlight was witnessing the first rains of the year in an arid portion of southern Ethiopia. Birds that had been silent the previous day burst into song, and dry rivers suddenly started to flow again! Read on for a day-by-day account of this incredible trip...

March 1st  Addis Ababa – Gefersa Reservoir – Lake Chelelaka

We began our Ethiopia trip at Gefersa Reservoir, which lies a short distance from Addis Ababa. A White-winged Cliff-Chat on top of a building on the outskirts of Addis came as a surprise. The reservoir held some ducks and waders including Blue-winged Goose and African Snipe. A jumble of pipes along the grassy lake margin held the endemic Abyssinian Longclaw (photo to the right), near-endemic Ethiopian Cisticola, and drab but engaging Moorland Chat.

A rivultet that flows into the lake was presided over by Gray-rumped Swallows – a highly local species in Ethiopia. A Long-crested Eagle posed a few yards away – our first taste of the remarkable tameness of Ethiopian birds that are rarely hunted or otherwise persecuted by humans. The lake inlet held the odd Wattled Ibis (photo below on the left), several Red-breasted Wheatears, and vigorously singing Abyssinian Siskins. 

We returned to Addis for lunch and a siesta before heading south to Lake Cheleleka. Though in the throes of the dry season and reduced to a glorified mud puddle, the number of birds was incredible. Particularly stunning were Great Crested Grebes in breeding plumage, African Pygmy-Goose, and drake Garganey. As the sun dipped below the surrounding mountains, hundreds of Common Cranes packed into the marshes surrounding the lake. Their calls imparted the scene with the peace particular to places favored by cranes. We returned to Addis pleased with having seen well over 100 species, including several endemics.

Wattled Ibis

Dusky Turtle-Dove - a common highland bird, even in Addis itself

March 2nd Addis Ababa – Suluta Plain – Portugese Bridge – Debre Libanos

The Suluta Plain is a high-elevation grassland that holds a variety of wintering palearctic and locally breeding birds. Although dominated by agriculture, birds and humans exist in the remarkable harmony that must almost be endemic to Ethiopia. As soon as leaving the car on the morning’s first stop, we flushed up an Erlanger’s Lark, which sat down after a short flight for excellent views and digiscoped photos. We also enjoyed a flock of male Ortolan Buntings in breeding plumage and a ridiculously tame Lanner. A search for Red-chested Swallow at a rapidly dessicating rivulet took some time, but finally paid off when we spotted a single Red-chest in a mixed swallow flock. Later in the morning, a stop at another upland stream held a large flock of the charismatic endemic Spot-breasted Lapwing. Having approached these surprisingly tame birds, obtained great photos, and spotted what turned out to be our only Spotted Redshank of the trip, we continued across the plateau.

Our first stop in the Debre Libanos area was the Portuguese Bridge, on the rim of the spectacular Jemmu River Valley. A multitude of Ruppell’s Griffons circled overhead, and a stunning adult Lammergeirer dashed by no more than 30 feet over our heads. We enjoyed what may have been the best spaghetti of the trip at a restaurant with a spectacular view.

The afternoon’s location was the valley that holds the monastery of Debre Libanos – one of the holiest sites for the Ethiopian Orthodox church. While the lingering presence of the founder of the church may be disputed, the presence of many interesting and range-restricted bird species is undeniable. Although the afternoon started slow and hot, the birding quickly improved. White-cheeked Turaco, Brown Woodland Warbler, and Dark-headed Oriole eventually fell into place. A Eurasian Griffon – known as an African wintering bird from very few sites – flew by at close range.

The soft colors of an afternoon on the Suluta Plain.

The simiens race of Groundscraper Thrush is endemic to Abyssinia

Back at the Portuguese Bridge at dusk, we added Mocking Cliff-Chat, Little Rock Thrush, and Cinnamon-breasted Bunting, as well as a small group of the well-known Gelada Baboon. The escarpment edge near the Portuguese Bridge closely resembles the area where the Geladas were filmed for the recent TV series Planet Earth. It may have even been one of the filming sites. This spot offers spectacular animals in a spectacular setting, and is not to be soon forgotten by anone who loves the natural world.

The 400-year-old Portuguese Bridge spans a side canyon of the JemmuWe were invited by the owner of the hotel where we were staying to join him and his family in a traditional barbeque. The goat he provided was tender and delicious, and was accompanied by at least three Cape Eagle Owls hooting from the escarpment below.

March 3rd Jemmu Valley – Portugese Bridge

Our target today was Harwood’s Frankolin – one of the Ethiopian endemics with the smallest range, and certainly one of the most difficult to see. A Verreaux’s Eagle Owl that flew from the edge of the road and then was found via spotlight was an enjoyable diversion from our pre-dawn drive into the Jemmu Valley. At dawn on the edge of the spectacular Jemmu escarpment, hordes of francolins were calling, including a couple of Harwood’s. Frantic scanning and scoping turned up the hefty Erkel’s Frankolin but no Harwood’s. Having encountered a local shepherd boy, I half-jokingly asked him if he knew the Harwood’s. He shook his head yes, and began searching for the bird. An hour later, he spotted a francolin on the ground which a quick look through binoculars confirmed as a Harwood’s. Though it disappeared, the shepherd and I worked as a team to flush the bird past Bernie, who had a superb in-flight look.

The rest of the day was spent at the bottom of the Jemmu Valley – an area that has an odd mix of species - highland birds, lowland birds, and a handful of birds normally found farther west in Ethiopia. The birding was excellent, with highlights including Fox Kestrel, Ovamba Sparrowhawk, and Green-backed Eremomela.

Red-breasted (Botta's) Wheatear

Jemmu Valley

Ruppell's Chat prefers rocky areas of the Jemmu Escarpment

March 4th Jemmu Valley – Debre Birhan – Ankober Escarpment

With the Harwood’s Frankolin in hand, we were able to head to the bottom of the Jemmu Valley early. The best sighting of the day, and perhaps the trip, was a massive adult Leopard seen at close range in a side canyon of the Jemmu. The presence of this animal is a testament to the rugged wilderness quality been retained by the  valley. The potential for further discovery here is boundless, and each excursion seems to pick up something new and unexpected. Our discoveries included Giant Kingfisher, Abyssinian Roller (photo below), Foxy Cisticola, Red-collared Widowbird, and African Silverbill.

Abyssinian Roller

Cutthroat Finches wait out the afternoon heat in the Jemmu Valley

In the afternoon, we climbed back up the escarpment, then crossed a highland plane, reaching the small city of Debre Birhan. Dusk found us at the edge of the Ankober escarpment – the habitat for the highly localized Akober Serin. We almost immediately saw several small groups of serins flying out of the agricultural land to the west and going to roost on the vertical vastness of the escarpment below us. As dusk fell, the wind picked up and the temperature dropped, reminding us of the extremity of the environment in the 10,000-foot mountains that this rare serin calls home.

Ankober EscarpmentMarch 5th Debre Birhan – Ankober – Mhelka Gebdu

In transit to Ankober, we ate a field breakfast on the edge of the escarpment. Several Verreaux’s Eagles and a small flock of Somali Starlings were visible from our lofty perch. In the surrounding fields, were a juvenile and adult Erlanger’s Lark that were very tame, and allowed photography in the warm morning light.

Upon arrival in Ankober, we birded our way up the winding path that climbs to the lodge where we were staying. A Cinnamon Bracken-Warbler responded to tape, and was eventually herded into the open for a brief view. The lodge made a perfect place for some mid-day relaxation. Perched on the edge of the escarpment, it offers spectacular views, a fresh breeze, and a variety of raptors circling overhead. To the north, the Ankober escarpment (and most of the range of the Ankober Serin) is visible, and to the east lies the vastness of the Afar planes, where we would journey the following day.

The late afternoon and evening were spend at Mhelka Gebdu, in the foothills below Ankober. This was our first chance on the trip to see many of the common acacia savanna birds of Ethiopia, including Red-bellied Parrot, White-bellied Go-away-bird, Rufous Chatterer, and Rueppell’s Weaver. Bernie saw our only Jameson’s Firefinch of the trip along the stream, and we eventually located a beautiful Half-collared Kingfisher.

March 6th Ankober – Mhelka Gebdu – Afar Plains – Awash

Early in the morning, we returned to Mhelka Gebdu in search of the endemic Yellow-throated Serin, which we hadn’t run into the previous afternoon. On the way down, we witnessed a remarkable migration of the Afar people and their camel herds. The Afar are a proudly independent, and essentially autonomous group of people that inhabit the plains below Ankober. They shun most modern technology, and are content living as they have for centuries if not millennia. While they normally stay in the arid savanna flatlands, they were moving into the foothills in search of water and forage for their camels. There was something moving about witnessing a migration with such profound ties to past eons of human history. As the dust of the Afar herds settled, we quickly located a small group of Yellow-throated Serins, along with a very cooperative pair of Yellow-breasted Bartets.      

The rest of the day was spent traversing the Afar plains, which seemed strangely empty without the Afar people. At one stop in a lusher patch of acacias, Bernie spotted a pair of Northern White-faced Owls. They were thoroughly enjoyed and digiscoped. Despite the heat and dust of the day’s driving, the birds continued to be excellent. Nile Valley Sunbird, Lichtenstein’s Sandgrouse, and Arabian Bustard (photo below on right) were highlights.   

male Chestnut-headed Sparrow-Lark

Arabian Bustard

Having made great time crossing the plains, we were able to stop in some lush riverine woodland. Pearl-spotted Owlet is the best-hated bird in most of Africa, and whistling its call almost always produces at least a handful of mobbing birds. An owl call in this location received a remarkable response. At least 30 different species (including a couple of Owlets) gathering within 15 minutes. Most exciting were at least 6 Barred Warblers and 2 Olive-tree Warblers.

March 7-8 Awash NP:

Awash National Park is one of the best-known and most exciting birding destinations in Ethiopia. It contains extensive savanna, open grassland, lush riparian thickets, hot springs, and vast lava fields. The landscape is dominated by Mount Fentale, which erupted most recently a hundred years ago. We easily found Sombre Chat, which is restricted to the lava flows at the base of the volcano. More difficult was Scissor-tailed Kite, which eventually flew overhead at close range.

Chestnut-bellied Sandgrouse

This large falls on the Awash River has impressive volume even in the dry season

Bustards were much in evidence, with White-bellied, Buff-crested, Kori (see photo on left below), and Hartlaub’s seen. Large flocks of Chestnut-bellied Sandgrouse were in view every morning (photo on left above), and the grasslands teemed with Common Quail, Harlequin Quail, Singing Bushlark, Red-winged Lark, Gillett’s Lark, Somali Fiscal, and Southern Grey Shrike. One of the most enjoyable experiences of Awash was finding a mixed flock of apparantly migrating Madagascar and Blue-cheeked Bee-eaters. A Shikra even buzzed through the flock, but probably concluded that all its members were a size too large for its predatory advances. Awash National Park holds some great mammals like Soemmerring's Gazelle and Beisa Oryx (see photo on right below).

We spend one night in the national park ‘lodge’, which more resembles a ramshackle trailer park than most people’s idea of a lodge. The upside of the almost comedically dilapidated accommodations was that as overnight guests we were allowed to do a night drive in the national park. The payoff was excellent. Highlights included Marsh Owl, Small Buttonquail, Star-spotted Nightjar, Common Genet, and Bat-eared Fox.

Kori Bustard

Beisa Oryx family

March 9: Awash – Langano

A morning ‘game drive’ in Awash NP produced a few trip birds and additional experience with great birds like Abyssinian Ground-Hornbill (see photo below). We enjoyed our last meal at the Kereyou Lodge restaurant, high on the side of the Awash river gorge. Most of the day was spend driving to Lake Langano – a rift valley lake surrounded by arid acacia savanna. Birding Lake Langano in the windy late evening, we located a Black Scimitarbill and several Slender-tailed Nightjars. We fell asleep to the oddly oceanic sound of waves crashing onto the sand beach of the lake.

Abysinnian Ground-HornbillMarch 10: Langano – Wondo Genet

We arose before dawn to search for nocturnal birds at a small escarpment. Freckled Nightjars quickly responded to tape, and a Greyish Eagle-Owl observed us quizzically from the top of a power pole a few yards away. As the sun rose, the birding continued to be excellent. I was shocked when a Blue-spotted Wood-Dove piled out of the dense brush in response to tape. A Verreaux’s Eagle-Owl was scoped on a day-roost. The highlight of the morning was a gorgeous pair of Rufous-necked Wrynecks that were observed at close range. What appeared to be the undescribed “Ethiopian” Cliff Swallow was spotted in a mixed swallow and swift flock. We felt we had earned our breakfast after locating virtually every desired species at Langano. We dined on the shore of the lake, sharing our leftover toast with a horde of Superb Starlings and Rueppell’s Weavers. A male Little Weaver even joined the Rueppell’s briefly, providing a good size comparison. On the way out of Langano, I spotted a White-winged Black-Tit flying across the road. With this sighting, we had officially cleaned up on target birds in the area.

A couple of hours were spent birding Abiata-Shala National Park, which holds two huge soda lakes. This place is spectacular, with tens of thousands of flamingoes (photo below) and hordes of shorebirds. We enoyed both the vast numbers of birds and some uncommon species, including Pacific Golden-Plover and Collared Pratincoles. A soda lake carpeted with flamingoes is one of the world’s great natural spectacles, and Ethiopia’s entrant in this category is as awe-inspiring as any.

A short afternoon drive brought us to Wondo Genet. Wondo is known as the most accessible place to find many highland birds. Although this continues to be the case, the forests in the area are severely threatened. Every year that we return to this site, there is less forest remaining. This is one place in Ethiopia where the human-natural balance is uneasy, and seemingly untenable. The emergence of a handful of local bird guides is an encouraging sign; perhaps the destruction can be stopped before the natural appeal of the area disappears completely. Despite the descruction, birding remains excellent. A short walk along a nearby stream gave us Red-shouldered Cuckooshrike and Western Olive Sunbird, but not the Yellow-fronted Parrot I was hoping for.

The countless flamingoes of Lake Abiata

March 11: Wondo Genet

A morning expedition into the montane forest above Wondo Genet was highly successful. One by one, our target birds fell into place: Abysinnian Woodpecker, Green-backed Honeyguide, Grey Cuckooshrike, Spotted Creeper, and Sharpe’s Starling. A pair of massive Crowned Hawk-Eagles circled over the valley. At the end of the morning, the only birds we had left to find were Yellow-fronted Parrot and Yellow-bellied Waxbill. A flock of waxbills surprised us on the way to lunch, leaving only the parrot to find.

We relaxed on the beautiful grounds of the hotel during the heat of the afternoon, returning to the parrot location in mid afternoon. I had hired a local guide to give us the best possible chance at the parrot. Nonetheless, at dusk, the situation seemed grim; no parrots had appeared at their favored roost. Somewhat disheartened, and scrambling for alternate plans to find the birds, we began the walk back to the hotel in the growing gloom. At the same moment, our guide and I heard the parrots just the other side of a small ridge. Almost instantly, they appeared over the hill, then settled in a snag 100 yards away. We enjoyed excellent scope views, albeit in less than full sunlight!

The fragile beauty of the Wondo Genet valley

Wondo Genet is a great area for Abyssinian Ground-Thrush

the charming Rouget's Rail

March 12: Wondo Genet – Dinsho

A quiet morning was spent looking for Green-backed Twinspots in the hotel gardens. Although no twinspots were located, we took advantage of the excellent morning light and remarkably tame birds to capture hundreds of megabytes of photos. Particularly cooperative were Northern Carmine Bee-Eaters and African Citrils (photo on left above). A spectacular African Emerald Cuckoo put in a brief appearance, almost glowing in the morning sun. Downing a strong but delicious Ethiopian coffee for the road, we tore ourselves away from the gardens tame denizens and began a long day of travel to the Bale Mountains.

Although we made few stops for birding in the high steppes above the rift valley, we did manage to spot a few wintering birds such as Lesser Spotted Eagle and House Martin through the dust of the road. Approaching the high-elevation grasslands of the national park, we encountered our first Rouget’s Rails along the road – apparently unfazed by the construction in the area (photo to the right). Over the next half-hour of driving, Bernie counted 22 more of this charismatic Abyssinian endemic, many of them on the road itself!

We arrived at Dinsho, on the skirts of Bale National Park, in the late afternoon. Employing the services of a local guide, we quickly set out in search of the unique birds and mammals of the natural park. A pair of Montane Nighthjars on a day roost allowed approach to within a couple of feet. Bernie enjoyed a brief look at a Bale Warbler – a possible split from Brown Warbler that is restricted to the Bale mountains of southeast Ethiopia. While the birds were good, the mammals were truly spectacular. Mountain Nyalas (photo to the right) were seen at extremely close range, including massive, elk-sized bucks. The population of this beautiful animal is down to Mountain Nyalaas few as 2000 animals, restricted to the southeastern Ethiopian highlands. Other mammals included Grey Duiker, Menelik’s Bushbuck, and Bohor Reedbuck. The night was spent at the national park’s Dinsho lodge – a fantastic facility that is unfortunately failing to achieve its full potential. An evening spotlighting drive failed to produce the sought-after Abyssinian Long-eared Owl, but we did enjoy at least three African Wood Owls, including an individual hooting away over the roof of our quarters in the lodge.

March 13: Bale National Park

Morning birding in Dinsho turned up the usual suspects, including Abysinnian Catbird and White-backed Black-Tit. In the larger town of Goba, we put down a hefty breakfast at our hotel’s restaurant. A steep drive brought us onto the open, Afro-Alpine grasslands of the Sannetti plateau. It didn’t take long to spot an Abysinnian Wolf – another mammal that is almost restricted to the Bale Mountains. It is a lanky canine that may have more in common with the wolves of Europe than the jackals or foxes of Africa. One of the more memorable natural history experiences of the trip occurred on the margin of an alpine lake. I was surprised to encounter two African Snipe foraging on the flats flanking the lake – far from any sheltering vegetation. They had apparently been driven to this atypical behavior by lack of water on the plateau caused by the severe drought. While studying and photographing the snipe, a Lanner appeared from the cliffs above, stooped on one of the snipe, and dealt it a resounding punch in mid-air. The snipe fell to the ground, rolled over several times, then crawled into a rocky crevice. Bernie and I approached hoping to get up-close photos, or perhaps to perform a post-mortem. To our surprise, the bird flew up at our arrival, and resumed feeding on the mudflats with no apparent ill-effects of its encounter with the Lanner. Though it survived, it is hard to imagine that the snipe persisted for long in the open conditions forced upon them by drought.

Sannetti Plateau moonscape

We ate a scenic picnic on the top of Mount Tullo Deemtu, at 4,377, the second-tallest peak in Ethiopia. Red-billed Choughs and a juvenile Lammergeier buzzed by (photo on the right above; being mobbed by Augur Buzzard), and a Malachite Sunbirds won ‘highest passerine of the trip’ honors. We returned early to the hotel to try to get some extra sleep in preparation for our early departure the following day. A few interesting birds spiced up the drive off the plateau, including Golden Eagle, Steppe Eagle, and another Bale Warbler. Stealing the show was a tremendous fire consuming a vast area of moorland a couple of ridges away. The smoke formed a massive cloud that blotted out the sun when the wind blew in the right direction. When the rains don’t come on time, snipe are batted around by Lanners, and thousands of acres of moorland are turned into ash. I found myself sympathizing with the prayers for rain of the local farmers.

 Web River in the valley of Muslim saint Sof OmarMarch 14: Sof Omar

An early departure saw us well on our way to the Islam’s sacred valley of Sof Omar when the sun rose. The most exciting point of the drive down was an Aardvark that ran through the truck’s headlights. Our primary target for the day was Salvadori’s Serin – another of the rarest and most restricted-range endemics of Ethiopia. It is known from two sites, one of which is the valley of Sof Omar. Although the bird can be difficult, and is missed by many groups, I quickly pulled in a small flock that posed for good digiscopes and great views. Other interesting species that we found included Somali Tit, Nightingale Thrush, and Collared Sunbird. The breakfast coffee went down easy with the main target bird, and one of Ethiopia’s most difficult species, already in hand. The remaining cool of the morning was spent birding and digiscoping the valley bottom. As the day heated up, we visited the spot where the Web River disappears into the mystical caves of Sof Omar. As always the scene was cheerily bucolic, with dozens of people washing clothes, washing themselves, and herding livestock to the river for a drink of precious water.

The long drive back to Goba was spiced with abundant bird life, including ridiculously close Kori Bustards, White Storks in a recently plowed field, and our first Somali Crows of the trip.

March 15: Goba – Harerra Forest – Genale – Negele

We made few stops on our re-crossing of the Sannetti Plateau, but did see more Abyssinian Wolves and a pair of beautifully cryptic Moorland Frankolins. The fire that had raged on the plateau two days before had somehow gone out. To the south of the Sannetti Plateau lies one of the most extensive and intact monane forests in Ethiopia. We spent several hours birding along a picturesque stream through the forest, again hoping to encounter Green-backed Twinspot. Although the Twinspot kept its distance, we saw several of the elusive Abyssinian Crimsonwing. Other sightings included Cinnamon Bracken Warbler and a flock of migrating European Bee-Eaters – an odd sight in thick montane forest at 9000 feet.

Colors and textures of the Bale highlands

The lush forests below the Sannetti Plateau

With a long drive ahead, we proceeded quickly down into the lowlands, progressing towards Negele – our base for the next several days. One quick stop was made at a stream that normally has Gray-headed Kingfisher. I found the stream dry, and almost didn’t bother to stop, but decided to try tape nonetheless. A kingfisher immediately responded, taking up a post above the dry streambed; yet another creature desperate for the rains to come. Towards dusk, we stopped at the Genale River – a traditional spot for Prince Ruspoli’s Turaco. Although we failed to locate the turaco, a Grey Kestrel was a nice consolation prize. The turaco would have to wait for the following morning.

March 16: Negle – Wadera – Liben Plains

Bright and early, we pulled out of Negele and drove back into the foothills favored by Ruspoli’s Turaco. Our destination was a site recently discovered by Keith Barnes and myself that seemed to support a large population of the elusive turaco. After a search that felt long but was actually quite short, Bernie spotted the first Turaco – crest glowing as it basked in the first rays of the morning sun. High-fives were exchanged, and the serious task of digiscoping this photogenic creature began. Walking around the area, we eventually turned up a flock of 12 turacos, which allowed close approach (photo below). One of Africa’s most-wanted birds was ours – not just a brief look, but an up-close encounter with a whole flock of the stunning creatures. Along the drive back to Negele were a handful of Red-and-yellow Barbets teed up on termite mounds.

Prince Ruspoli's Turaco

Dusk on the Liben Plains. Somali Short-toed Larks skylark overhead.

White-crowned Starling - common on the Liben Plains

Another sought-after Ethiopian endemic was the afternoon’s target. Sidamo Lark may have the smallest range of any described Ethiopian bird species. When searching for the bird in the middle of the plains it inhabits, you can see habitat that is inappropriate for the bird encroaching in three of the four compass directions. It is possible that other pockets of the birds exist, but the open grassy areas it prefers are highly specific to the Negele area. Birding until dusk, we located Temminck’s Courser and the local Somali Short-toed Lark, but no Sidamos. Dinner was enjoyed in a surprisingly good local restaurant.

March 17: Negele – Liben Plains

We again departed Negele early in order to be in the savannas to its east during the morning cool. These acacia savannas lie on gently rolling hills, part of the great swath of land that angles down from the highlands of Abyssinia to the baked stone deserts along the Red Sea in Somalia. Although they look dry and almost devoid of life from a distance, they hold an excellent diversity of bird species, even at the height of the dry season. Many northeastern Africa arid-zone birds were encountered, including Abyssinian Scimitarbill, Three-streaked Tchagra, Somali Crombec, Northern Grosbeak-Canary, and Crimson-rumped Waxbill. Several Guenther’s Dik-Dik middens were discovered, replete with the oil-covered sticks that the small antelope ram into a gland on their nose to mark their territory.

Although it was clear and hot by the time we were back at the Liben Plains, we made another attempt at Sidamo Lark. Out on a small track through the plains, I spotted an interesting eagle, and stopped the car to take a look. As I pondered the Aquila, Bernie pointed out an interesting bird standing on a clump of grass a short distance away. He said that it looked good, and I agreed, but I was surprised to see a Sidamo Lark making itself so obvious – usually the species hunkers down, and is almost impossible to spot. As I Savanna near Negeleapproached the bird, it disappeared to the grass (which was sparse, an inch high, and baked brown by the sun). We could not re-locate it until we were only 10 feet away. The bird has a plumage pattern that is perfect for concealment in the grasses of the Liben Plains. Once spotted, it is remarkable accommodating, and Bernie and I both got excellent photos (photo above left). 

The afternoon saw us returning to the savannas east of the Liben Plains. On the outbound journey, I spotted a roadside Coqui Francolin – a rare and localized bird in Ethiopia (photo above right). We spent a half-hour watching these francolins, whose powers of concealment rival those of the Sidamo Lark. An hour before the dusk, the savanna came alive with starlings. Flocks comprised of at least three species streamed overhead. Thousands of birds must have been involved in this strange migration. We could only speculate that this movement had been triggered by the lack of water that was bringing such sweeping changes to animal behavior throughout the area. 

March 18: Negele – Yabello

Between Negele and Yabello lies a rugged swatch of savanna punctuated by the slightly lusher vegetation of the Dawa River valley. Although the driving is rough, the long trip is made interesting by an exciting selection of southern Ethiopia specialty birds. Our first exciting find was a flock that contained several Magpie Starlings. We reached the Dawa River while the morning cool remained, and quickly located our desired species: White-winged Dove, Black-bellied Sunbird, and Salvadori’s Weaver. A Little Sparrowhawk dashed by, and African Pied Wagtails hopped on the rocky banks of the river. A lunch stop in savanna was interesting despite the heat; graced by Bare-eyed Thrushes and an Icterine Warbler. More unexpected was a male Black Cuckooshrike – a bird that has been reported in southern Ethiopia, but that is not well-known in the country.

Approaching Yabello you enter the range of two of Ethiopia’s most sought-after species: Stresemann’s Bush-Crow and White-tailed Swallow. The first of these birds that we encountered was the Bush-Crow – a small flock (first photo below) . We watched and photographed the birds as they slowly walked across the ground foraging. A few miles farther was a pair of beautiful Bateleurs perched next to the road (second photo below). They also provided abundant photographic opportunitites. Moving slightly closer to Yabello, I spotted a small group of White-tailed Swallows – the last sighting of an excellent day in the wilds of southern Ethiopia.

Stresemann's Bush-Crow

 March 19: Yabello – Mega

Departing Yabello early, Bernie and I arrived in the savanna south of town at dawn. As soon as we exited the car, I sensed something different about the scene. As I began inhaling the smell of moist earth, and tuned in to the countless bird voices around us, I realized that the rains had come to this area during the night. The gratitude for easy water Red-naped Bush-Shrikebeing broadcast by every creature in the area was palpable and thrilling. Walking a short way into the scrub, we found a bare rock with a shallow depression full of rainwater. It was buzzing with bird activity. Wanting to abet and prolong this phenenomenon, I added water to the pool. Red-naped Bush-Shrikes that were singing from the tops of acacia bushes briefly lured us farther into the scrub (photo to the right). This inveterate skulker had been transformed into an extrovert by a sprinkle of precious precipitation.

Returning to the pool, the bathing and drinking show continued. Waterpark visitors included D’Arnaud’s Barbet, Rufous Chatterer, and White-bellied Canary. Just as the action at the pool was slowing, three White-tailed Swallows appeared over our nascent natatorium (photos below on right). One of them ventured to the edge of the pond for a quick drink before vanishing into the savanna as mysteriously as it had appeared. After breakfast, we checked the pond once again and found a large tortoise advancing towards the little basin of water. It is hard to know how the tortoise honed in on the surface water so quickly. Like the swallows, it must have some preternatural sense for the desert’s most precious commodity.

We continued to reap the fruits of the previous night’s rain as we continued south. Everywhere, birds were in full song, and much more active than previously. A stop next to a small settlement held Shelley’s Rufous Sparrow. The place where we ate lunch was very quiet when we arrived, but several Foxy Larks took to the air and started singing when a few drops of rain fell from a pregnantly dark cloud. For seven months, not a drop of precipitation had fallen on this arid region. But the rains had come, and the world was transformed. The start of the wet season was one of the most remarkable natural history events I have ever witnessed, and one of the most momentous to be witnessed on the African continent.

A night drive revealed a correspondingly active nocturnal crowd. Incredible numbers of nightjars hawked the clouds of newly hatched moths that fluttered around my spotlight. Dozens of Donaldson-Smith’s Nightjars (photo below left) sang from the acacias and several African Scops-Owls immediately responded to my tape.

Donaldson-Smith's Nightjar

White-tailed Swallow

March 20: Yabello Area

At dawn, the savanna was again bursting with bird song. Cuckoos were particularly in evidence, including Great Spotted Cuckoo and Senegal Coucal. An adult Martial Eagle posed for photos no more than 20 yards away (photo below on left). Crowned Lapwing was another species that seemed to materialize with the onset of the wet season. They were everywhere, with big flocks flying back and forth over the road. The rains had also triggered frantic nest building among most birds. Every Stresemann’s Bush-Crow I saw had a stick in its bill or was actively working on constructing the large stick-ball nest characteristic of the species. A stop at a new area of scrub held a pack of Scaly Chatterers and a Foxy Cisticola. While returning to Yabello, we admired a White-bellied Bustart in front of an ancient volcanic crater that juts from the plains (photo below on right).


Most of the afternoon was spent resting up for a long night drive in the evening. As the sun set, we set off, almost immediately encountering a Greyish Eagle-Owl. Again nightjars were much in evidence, but the diversity was not as good as it had been the previous night. One beautiful Donaldson-Smith’s Nightjar allowed very close approach and excellent photos. We finally caught up with one of our most difficult remaining target birds when I called in and spotlighted a Three-banded Courser.
Eurasian Hoopoe against the sweeping savanna of Yabello

March 21: Yabello – Arba Minch – Nechisar NP

This was primarily a travel day between the dry savanna of Yabello and the moister riparian woodland and grassland of the Nechisar area. Our breakfast stop was along a riverbed in the scrub near Yabello. Here we witnessed another dramatic result of the coming of the rains. While birding our way down the riverbed, I happened to turn around and see what I initially took for a mirage; the riverbed in the distance seemed to be glimmering with water. Quickly I realized that the ‘mirage’ was advancing, and that the river had begun flowing again. We quickly made our way to the side of the river on which our vehicle was parked, then enjoyed our coffee and eggs as we watched the re-birth of the river. By the time we left, the formerly dry riverbed was gushing with at least a foot of water. Our Ethiopian driver and translator were flabbergasted, having never witnessed anything like this. Although the morning’s highlight was the river, the birding was also good. We found Spotted Morning-Thrushes, Magpie Starlings, and several very agitated Pearl-spotted Owlets.

A stop at a large local lake held Black Egret, White-headed Vulture, and African Cuckoo-Hawk. Arriving in Arba Minch, we checked into a good hotel and enjoyed fresh salad and generally excellent provender for lunch. When the heat of the day decreased, we made the short drive to Nechisar National Park. The temple-like interior of the park’s fig forest, with huge tree trunks rising in the gloom, furnished a strong contrast to the open, acacia habitats we had been birding for the past week. Although birding this habitat is challenging, it did hold several new birds for the trip: Broad-billed Roller, Yellowbill, Red-capped Robin-Chat, and Mosque Swallow.

March 22: Nechisar NP

Early in the morning, we again entered the park to bird the lush riparian forest. This time, we hiked through the forest to the ecotone with the adjoining savanna. Birding was much easier in this more open habitat, and the birds were good. Most interesting was a pair of Red-shouldered Cuckooshrike and a Scaly-throated Honeyguide. Walking back to our vehicle, I caught movement as something flushed at my feet. I almost ignored the bird, thinking it a large insect, but peered in the direction the bird had flown and quickly realized that it was a Green-backed Twinspot. We enjoyed great, close views of the bird as it walked along the forest floor, sometimes disappearing into the fig leaves that were massive compared to its tininess. This was a satisfying conclusion to Bernie’s long quest for this bird, which has stretched through several trips to Africa.

 Fig forest in Nechisar National ParkThe rest of the day was spent in the open, grassland portion of Nechisar National Park. The plains held Desert Cisticola, Flappet Lark, and White-tailed Lark. The edge of Lake Abaya was idyllically African, with Zebras and Warthogs watering alongside a huge number of birds. Wattled Lapwings called anxiously as we approached, and several Whinchats were our first of the trip. 

March 23: Arba Minch – Nechisar NP – Awassa

After breakfast, we returned to the fig forest of Nechisar. A Half-collared Kingfisher graced the hot springs, Narina Trogons moved lazily through, and African Yellow White-Eyes called from the canopy. Bernie caught sight of an interesting cuckooshrike whose identity remains uncertain. With the day warming up, we began the journey to Awassa. This trip took us through the fruit basket of Ethiopia, where large orchards and locals eagerly hawking their products line the road. Gray Kestrel was the most interesting bird along the way.

Lake Awassa is one of the smallest of the lakes that dot the Rift Valley of Ethiopia. Nonetheless, it may be the most interesting ornithologically. Humans and birds have reached a harmony here that is remarkable even in a country where the two tribes generally coexist peacefully. African Pygmy-Goose can be seen at a few yards, and Malachite Kingfishers sit on rocks literally at your feet (photo below right). It is often difficult to stop admiring the birds in your immediate vicinity to search the farther reaches of the lake for additional birds. Our evening birding at Awassa was excellent as expected. Lesser Swamp Warbler, Great Reed Warbler, African Yellow Warbler, and Red-faced Cisticola haunted the lake-edge reeds. A Hippo put on an incredible show as it surfaced again and again only a few yards offshore. Even the Black Crakes were tame, bright yellow bills lit up by the warm rays of the setting sun. Towards dusk, the marshes came alive with hundreds of White-winged Terns and thousands of Barn Swallows.

Lake Ziway with mountains in the distance

March 24: Awassa – Ziway

Our first destination on the trip’s penultimate day was one of Africa’s most exciting and remarkable: the fish market of Awassa. The number and tameness of the birds here are staggering. Marabou Storks shoulder their way through the vendors (photos below), Great White Pelicans beg for fish scraps, and a diverse horse of larids squabble for the scraps neglected by the larger piscivores. Awassa holds uncommon birds too; Bernie spotted Lesser Moorhens and a Caspian Gull. We both snapped hundreds of photos of the tame shorebirds, ducks, and other birds that fed in a marsh adjacent the market. The show is not limited to waterbirds; Silvery-cheeked Hornbills and Thick-billed Ravens are common in the figs that line the shore.

We continued our survey of Lake Awassa a couple of miles down the shore. Gulls were much in evidence, and included Lesser Black-backed and Heuglin’s. A White-backed Duck splashed in the marsh alongside hordes of African Jacanas, Common Moorhens, and Red-knobbed Coots. The dense sedges of a nearby marsh held a Red-chested Flufftail that we saw briefly but well. Spotting this elusive species capped off an almost overwhelming morning of birding.

Black-winged Stilt - a common shorebird at ZiwayLunch was taken at a nearby hotel, where the birding continued. Mealtime sightings included a troop of White Colobus Monkeys, Banded Snake-Eagle, and a lone Eurasian Wryneck. On the way to Ziway, we make a second stop at Abiata-Shala National Park. Again, the lake was lined with tens of thousands of Greater and Lesser Flamingoes. The shorebird population had seemingly increased – up to hundreds of thousands. In late afternoon, hundreds of thousands if not a million Barn and Bank Swallows circled over the lake and its periphery. This place is simply incredible.

March 25: Lake Ziway – Addis Ababa

By the final morning of the trip, we had seen so much that the possibilities for new birds were limited. Nonetheless, the trip list marched on. Just as I was saying to Bernie that it was odd that we hadn’t found Saddle-billed Stork and Curlew Sandpiper, I put the scope on a pair of storks. A few minutes later, I added a handful of Curlew Sandpipers that were just gaining breeding plumage. Ziway also supports eerily tame birds, but our paradigms had begun shifting such that the sight of dozens of 5-foot-tall Marabous a few feet away seemed normal.

The afternoon was mostly spent relaxing in Addis, though the gardens of our hotel yielded two new trip birds: Wood Warbler and Brown Warbler. We celebrated an incredibly successful trip on a balcony overlooking the hotel gardens, enjoying a vesper chorus of Mountain Thrushes. Our trip total was a remarkable 583 species, including almost 140 birds that were new for Bernie. We had surveyed a variety of interesting local cultures, taken in a variety of spectacular landscapes, and seen a staggering number of birds and mammals. I would return to South Africa early the next morning, while Bernie would spend the following day visiting the National Museum and shopping before returning to the United States on a late evening flight.

Red earth near Mega. Areas like this are favored by Foxy Lark.


This list includes all the bird species that were recorded by one or both of us. Taxonomy and nomenclature follow: Clements, James F. 2007. The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, Sixth Edition. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. If all of the birds we saw of a given species belong to a subspecies that is a potential split, I put the split species name first, and the Clements name in parentheses. Outright exceptions to Clements are bracketed.

1.                  Little Grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis

2.                  Great Crested Grebe Podiceps cristatus

3.                  Eared Grebe Podiceps nigricollis

4.                  Great White Pelican Pelecanus onocrotalus

5.                  Pink-backed Pelican Pelecanus rufescens

6.                  Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo

7.                  Long-tailed Cormorant Phalacrocorax africanus  

8.                  Darter Anhinga melanogaster

9.                  Gray Heron Ardea cinerea

10.             Black-headed Heron Ardea melanocephala

11.             Goliath Heron Ardea goliath

12.             Purple Heron Ardea purpurea

13.             Great Egret Ardea alba

14.             Black Heron Egretta ardesiaca

15.             Intermediate Egret Egretta intermedia

16.             Little Egret Egretta garzetta

17.             Squacco Heron Ardeola ralloides

18.             Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis

19.             Striated Heron Butorides striatus

20.             Hamerkop Scopus umbretta

21.             Yellow-billed Stork Mycteria ibis

22.             Black Stork Ciconia nigra

23.             Abdim’s Stork Ciconia abdimii

24.             Wooly-necked Stork Ciconia episcopus

25.             White Stork Ciconia ciconia

26.             Saddle-billed Stork Ephippiorhynchus senegalensis

27.             Marabou Stork Leptoptilos crumeniferus

28.             Sacred Ibis Threskiornis aethiopicus

29.             Hadada Ibis Bostrychia hagedash

30.             e Wattled Ibis Bostrychia carunculata

31.             Glossy Ibis Plegadis falcinellus

32.             Eurasian Spoonbill  Platalea leucorodia

33.             African Spoonbill Platalea alba

34.             Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus rubber

35.             Lesser Flamingo Phoenicopterus minor

36.             Fulvous Whistling-Duck Dendrocygna bicolor

37.             White-faced Whistling-Duck Dendrocygna viduata

38.             White-backed Duck Thalassornis leuconotus

39.             E Blue-winged Goose Cyanochen cyanopterus

40.             Egyptian Goose Alopochen aegyptiacus

41.             Ruddy Shelduck Tadorna ferruginea

42.             Spur-winged Goose Plectropterus gambensis

43.             Comb Duck Sarkidiornis melanotos

44.             African Pygmy-Goose Nettapus auritus

45.             African Black Duck Anas sparsa

46.             Eurasian Wigeon Anas Penelope

47.             Eurasian Teal Anas crecca

48.             Yellow-billed Duck Anas undulata

49.             Northern Pintail Anas acuta

50.             Red-billed Duck Anas erythrorhyncha

51.             Hottentot Teal Anas hottentota

52.             Garganey Anas querquedula

53.             Northern Shoveler Anas clypeata

54.             Southern Pochard Netta erythrophthalma

55.             Tufted Duck Aythya fuligula

56.             Maccoa Duck  Oxyura maccoa

57.             African Cuckoo-Hawk  Aviceda cuculoides

58.             Black-shouldered Kite Elanus caeruleus

59.             Scissor-tailed Kite Chelictinia riocourii

60.             Black Kite Milvus migrans

61.             African Fish-Eagle Haliaeetus vocifer

62.             Hooded Vulture Necrosyrtes monachus

63.             Lammergeier Gypaetus barbatus

64.             Egyptian Vulture Neophron percnopterus

65.             White-backed Vulture Gyps africanus

66.             Rueppell's Griffon Gyps rueppellii

67.             Eurasian Griffon  Gyps fulvus

68.             Lappet-faced Vulture Torgos tracheliotus

69.             White-headed Vulture Trigonoceps occipitalis

70.             Black-breasted Snake-Eagle Circaetus pectoralis

71.             Brown Snake-Eagle Circaetus cinereus

72.             Banded Snake-Eagle  Circaetus cinerascens

73.             Bateleur Terathopius ecaudatus

74.             Western Marsh-Harrier Circus aeruginosus

75.             Pallid Harrier Circus macrourus

76.             Montagu's Harrier Circus pygargus

77.             African Harrier-Hawk Polyboroides typus

78.             Dark Chanting-Goshawk Melierax metabates

79.             Eastern Chanting-Goshawk Melierax poliopterus

80.             Gabar Goshawk Micronisus gabar

81.             Shikra Accipiter badius

82.             Levant Sparrowhawk Accipiter brevipes

83.             Little Sparrowhawk Accipiter minullus

84.             Ovampo Sparrowhawk  Accipiter ovampensis

85.             Rufous-chested Sparrowhawk Accipiter rufiventris

86.             Black Goshawk Accipiter melanoleucus

87.             Eurasian Buzzard  Buteo buteo

88.             Mountain Buzzard Buteo oreophilus

89.             Augur Buzzard Buteo augur

90.             Lesser Spotted Eagle Aquila pomarina

91.             Greater Spotted Eagle Aquila clanga

92.             Tawny Eagle Aquila rapax

93.             Steppe Eagle Aquila nipalensis

94.             Wahlberg's Eagle Aquila wahlbergi

95.             Golden Eagle Aquila chrysaetos

96.             Verreaux's Eagle Aquila verreauxii

97.             African Hawk-Eagle Hieraaetus spilogaster

98.             Booted Eagle Hieraaetus pennatus

99.             Martial Eagle Polemaetus bellicosus

100.         Long-crested Eagle Lophaetus occipitalis

101.         Crowned Hawk-Eagle Stephanoaetus coronatus

102.         Secretary-bird Sagittarius serpentarius

103.         Pygmy Falcon Polihierax semitorquatus

104.         Lesser Kestrel Falco naumanni

105.         Eurasian Kestrel Falco tinnunculus

106.         Fox Kestrel Falco alopex

107.         Gray Kestrel Falco ardosiaceus

108.         Eurasian Hobby Falco subbuteo

109.         African Hobby Falco cuvierii

110.         Lanner Falcon Falco biarmicus

111.         Saker Falcon Falco cherrug

112.         Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus

113.         Coqui Francolin  Francolinus coqui

114.         Crested Francolin Francolinus sephaena

115.         Moorland Francolin Francolinus psilolaemus

116.         Scaly Francolin Francolinus squamatus

117.         E Harwood's Francolin Francolinus harwoodi

118.         Yellow-necked Francolin Francolinus leucoscepus

119.         e Chestnut-naped Francolin Francolinus castaneicollis

120.         e Erckel's Francolin Francolinus erckelii

121.         Common Quail Coturnix coturnix

122.         Harlequin Quail  Coturnix delegorguei

123.         Helmeted Guineafowl Numida meleagris

124.         Vulturine Guineafowl Acryllium vulturinum

125.         Small Buttonquail  Turnix sylvaticus

126.         Black Crowned-Crane Balearica pavonina

127.         Common Crane Grus grus

128.         Red-chested Flufftail Sarothrura rufa

129.         African Rail  Rallus caerulescens

130.         e Rouget's Rail Rougetius rougetii

131.         Black Crake Amaurornis flavirostris

132.         Purple Swamphen  Porphyrio porphyrio

133.         Common Moorhen Gallinula chloropus

134.         Lesser Moorhen  Gallinula angulata

135.         Red-knobbed Coot Fulica cristata

136.         Arabian Bustard Ardeotis arabs

137.         Kori Bustard Ardeotis kori

138.         White-bellied Bustard Eupodotis senegalensis

139.         Buff-crested Bustard Eupodotis gindiana

140.         Hartlaub's Bustard Lissotis hartlaubii

141.         Lesser Jacana Microparra capensis

142.         African Jacana Actophilornis africanus

143.         Black-winged Stilt Himantopus himantopus

144.         Pied Avocet Recurvirostra avosetta

145.         Senegal Thick-knee Burhinus senegalensis

146.         e Somali (Cream-colored) Courser Cursorius somalensis (cursor)

147.         Temminck's Courser Cursorius temminckii

148.         Three-banded Courser Rhinoptilus cinctus

149.         Collared Pratincole Glareola pratincola

150.         Spur-winged Plover Vanellus spinosus

151.         Black-headed Lapwing Vanellus tectus

152.         Black-winged Lapwing Vanellus melanopterus

153.         Crowned Lapwing Vanellus coronatus

154.         Wattled Lapwing Vanellus senegallus

155.         E Spot-breasted Lapwing Vanellus melanocephalus

156.         Pacific Golden-Plover  Pluvialis fulva

157.         Common Ringed Plover Charadrius hiaticula

158.         Little Ringed Plover Charadrius dubius

159.         Kittlitz's Plover Charadrius pecuarius

160.         Three-banded Plover Charadrius tricollaris

161.         African Snipe  Gallinago nigripennis

162.         Common Snipe Gallinago gallinago

163.         Black-tailed Godwit Limosa limosa

164.         Common Sandpiper Actitis hypoleucos

165.         Green Sandpiper Tringa ochropus

166.         Spotted Redshank   Tringa erythropus

167.         Common Greenshank Tringa nebularia

168.         Marsh Sandpiper Tringa stagnatilis

169.         Wood Sandpiper Tringa glareola

170.         Little Stint Calidris minuta

171.         Temminck's Stint Calidris temminckii

172.         Curlew Sandpiper Calidris ferruginea

173.         Ruff Philomachus pugnax

174.         Caspian Gull  Larus cachinnans

175.         Heuglin´s Gull Larus heuglini

176.         Lesser Black-backed Gull Larus fuscus

177.         Gray-headed Gull Larus cirrocephalus

178.         Black-headed Gull Larus ridibundus

179.         Gull-billed Tern Sterna nilotica

180.         Whiskered Tern Chlidonias hybridus

181.         White-winged Tern Chlidonias leucopterus

182.         Chestnut-bellied Sandgrouse Pterocles exustus

183.         Black-faced Sandgrouse Pterocles decoratus

184.         Lichtenstein's Sandgrouse Pterocles lichtensteinii

185.         Four-banded Sandgrouse  Pterocles quadricinctus

186.         Rock Dove  Columba livia

187.         Speckled Pigeon Columba guinea

188.         e White-collared Pigeon Columba albitorques

189.         Lemon Dove Columba larvata

190.         Dusky Turtle-Dove Streptopelia lugens

191.         African Collared-Dove Streptopelia roseogrisea

192.         e White-winged Collared-Dove Streptopelia reichenowi

193.         African Mourning Dove Streptopelia decipiens

194.         Red-eyed Dove Streptopelia semitorquata

195.         Ring-necked Dove Streptopelia capicola

196.         Vinaceous Dove  Streptopelia vinacea

197.         Laughing Dove Streptopelia senegalensis

198.         Emerald-spotted Wood-Dove Turtur chalcospilos

199.         Black-billed Wood-Dove Turtur abyssinicus

200.         Blue-spotted Wood-Dove Turtur afer

201.         Tambourine Dove Turtur tympanistria

202.         Namaqua Dove Oena capensis

203.         Bruce's Green-Pigeon Treron waalia

204.         e Black-winged Lovebird Agapornis taranta

205.         Red-bellied (A. Orange-bellied) Parrot Poicephalus rufiventris

206.         E Yellow-fronted Parrot Poicephalus flavifrons

207.         e White-cheeked Turaco Tauraco leucotis

208.         E Prince Ruspoli's Turaco Tauraco ruspolii

209.         Bare-faced Go-away-bird Corythaixoides personatus

210.         White-bellied Go-away-bird Corythaixoides leucogaster

211.         Great Spotted Cuckoo  Clamator glandarius

212.         Red-chested Cuckoo  Cuculus solitarius

213.         Common / African Cuckoo  Cuculus canorus / gularis

214.         Klaas' Cuckoo Chrysococcyx klaas

215.         African Emerald Cuckoo Chrysococcyx cupreus

216.         Yellowbill Ceuthmochares aereus

217.         Blue-headed Coucal Centropus monachus

218.         Senegal Coucal Centropus senegalensis

219.         White-browed Coucal Centropus supercilious

220.         African Scops-Owl Otus senegalensis

221.         Northern White-faced Owl Ptilopsis leucotis

222.         Cape Eagle-Owl Bubo capensis

223.         Grayish Eagle-Owl Bubo cinerascens

224.         Verreaux's Eagle-Owl Bubo lacteus

225.         African Wood-Owl Strix woodfordii

226.         Pearl-spotted Owlet Glaucidium perlatum

227.         Marsh Owl Asio capensis

228.         Eurasian Nightjar  Caprimulgus europaeus

229.         Sombre Nightjar  Caprimulgus fraenatus

230.         Nubian Nightjar  Caprimulgus nubicus

231.         Donaldson-Smith’s Nightjar Caprimulgus donaldsoni

232.         Montane (Abyssinian) Nightjar Caprimulgus poliocephalus

233.         Plain Nightjar Caprimulgus inornatus

234.         Star-spotted Nightjar Caprimulgus stellatus

235.         Freckled Nightjar Caprimulgus tristigma

236.         Slender-tailed Nightjar Caprimulgus clarus

237.         African Palm-Swift Cypsiurus parvus

238.         Alpine Swift Tachymarptis melba

239.         Mottled Swift Tachymarptis aequatorialis

240.         Common Swift Apus apus

241.         Nyanza Swift Apus niansa

242.         Little Swift  Apus affinis

243.         White-rumped Swift  Apus caffer

244.         Speckled Mousebird Colius striatus

245.         Blue-naped Mousebird Urocolius macrourus

246.         Narina Trogon Apaloderma narina

247.         Half-collared Kingfisher Alcedo semitorquata

248.         Malachite Kingfisher Alcedo cristata

249.         African Pygmy-Kingfisher Ispidina picta

250.         Gray-headed Kingfisher Halcyon leucocephala

251.         Woodland Kingfisher Halcyon senegalensis

252.         Striped Kingfisher Halcyon chelicuti

253.         Giant Kingfisher Megaceryle maxima

254.         Pied Kingfisher Ceryle rudis

255.         Little Bee-eater Merops pusillus

256.         Blue-breasted Bee-eater Merops variegates

257.         Blue-cheeked Bee-eater Merops persicus

258.         Madagascar Bee-eater  Merops superciliosus

259.         European Bee-eater Merops apiaster

260.         Northern Carmine Bee-eater Merops nubicus

261.         Abyssinian Roller Coracias abyssinica

262.         Lilac-breasted Roller Coracias caudate

263.         Rufous-crowned Roller Coracias naevia

264.         Broad-billed Roller Eurystomus glaucurus

265.         Eurasian Hoopoe Upupa epops

266.         e Black-billed Woodhoopoe Phoeniculus somaliensis

267.         Black Scimitar-bill Rhinopomastus aterrimus

268.         Abyssinian Scimitar-bill Rhinopomastus minor

269.         Red-billed Hornbill Tockus erythrorhynchus

270.         Eastern Yellow-billed Hornbill Tockus flavirostris

271.         Von der Decken's Hornbill Tockus deckeni

272.         e Hemprich's Hornbill Tockus hemprichii

273.         African Gray Hornbill Tockus nasutus

274.         Silvery-cheeked Hornbill Ceratogymna brevis

275.         Abyssinian Ground-Hornbill Bucorvus abyssinicus

276.         Yellow-fronted Tinkerbird Pogoniulus chrysoconus

277.         Red-fronted Tinkerbird Pogoniulus pusillus

278.         Red-fronted Barbet Tricholaema diademata

279.         Black-throated Barbet Tricholaema melanocephala

280.         e Banded Barbet Lybius undatus

281.         Black-billed Barbet Lybius guifsobalito

282.         Double-toothed Barbet Lybius bidentatus

283.         Yellow-breasted Barbet Trachyphonus margaritatus

284.         Red-and-yellow Barbet Trachyphonus erythrocephalus

285.         D'Arnaud's Barbet Trachyphonus darnaudii

286.         Green-backed Honeyguide  Prodotiscus zambesiae

287.         Wahlberg’s Honeyguide  Prodotiscus regulus

288.         Scaly-throated Honeyguide Indicator variegates

289.         Greater Honeyguide Indicator indicator

290.         Lesser Honeyguide Indicator minor

291.         Eurasian Wryneck  Jynx torquilla

292.         Rufous-necked Wryneck Jynx ruficollis

293.         Nubian Woodpecker Campethera nubica

294.         e Abyssinian Woodpecker Dendropicos abyssinicus

295.         Cardinal Woodpecker Dendropicos fuscescens

296.         Bearded Woodpecker Dendropicos namaquus

297.         Gray Woodpecker  Dendropicos goertae

298.         Gray-headed Woodpecker Dendropicos spodocephalus

299.         Singing Bushlark  Mirafra cantillans

300.         White-tailed Lark Mirafra albicauda

301.         Red-winged Lark  Mirafra hypermetra

302.         Flappet Lark Mirafra rufocinnamomea

303.         e Gillett's Lark Mirafra gilletti

304.         Foxy Lark Mirafra alopex

305.         E Sidamo Lark Heteromirafra sidamoensis

306.         Chestnut-backed Sparrow-Lark Eremopterix leucotis

307.         Chestnut-headed Sparrow-Lark Eremopterix signata

308.         e Erlanger´s (Red-capped) Lark Calandrella (cinerea) erlangeri

309.         Somali Short-toed Lark Calandrella somalica

310.         Thekla Lark Galerida theklae

311.         E Brown (Black) Sawwing Psalidoprocne antinorii (pristoptera)

312.         Gray-rumped Swallow Hirundo griseopyga

313.         Bank Swallow Riparia riparia

314.         Plain Martin Riparia paludicola

315.         Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica

316.         Red-chested Swallow Hirundo lucida

317.         Wire-tailed Swallow Hirundo smithii

318.         Ethiopian Swallow Hirundo aethiopica

319.         E White-tailed Swallow Hirundo megaensis

320.         Eurasian Crag-Martin Hirundo rupestris

321.         Rock Martin Hirundo fuligula

322.         House Martin Delichon urbica

323.         Lesser Striped-Swallow Hirundo abyssinica

324.         Mosque Swallow Hirundo senegalensis

325.         Red-rumped Swallow Hirundo daurica

326.         [e “Ethiopian” Cliff Swallow  Petrochelidon sp. (undescribed)]

327.         Plain-backed Pipit Anthus leucophrys

328.         African Pipit Anthus cinnamomeus

329.         Tawny Pipit Anthus campestris

330.         Long-billed Pipit Anthus similes

331.         Tree Pipit Anthus trivialis

332.         Red-throated Pipit Anthus cervinus

333.         E Abyssinian Longclaw Macronyx flavicollis

334.         White Wagtail Motacilla alba

335.         African Pied Wagtail Motacilla aguimp

336.         Yellow Wagtail Motacilla flava

337.         [Black-headed (Yellow) Wagtail Montacilla feldegg (flava)]

338.         Gray Wagtail Motacilla cinerea

339.         Mountain Wagtail Motacilla clara

340.         White-breasted Cuckoo-shrike Coracina pectoralis

341.         Gray Cuckoo-shrike Coracina caesia

342.         Red-shouldered Cuckoo-shrike Campephaga phoenicea

343.         Black Cuckoo-shrike  Campephaga flava

344.         Common Bulbul Pycnonotus barbatus

345.         Northern Brownbul Phyllastrephus strepitans

346.         Rufous-tailed Rock-Thrush Monticola saxatilis

347.         Little Rock-Thrush Monticola rufocinereus

348.         Blue Rock-Thrush Monticola solitarius

349.         Abyssinian Ground-Thrush Zoothera piaggiae

350.         Groundscraper Thrush Psophocichla litsipsirupa

351.         Olive (Mountain) Thrush Turdus olivaceus (abyssinicus)

352.         African Thrush Turdus pelios

353.         African Bare-eyed Thrush Turdus tephronotus

354.         Red-faced Cisticola Cisticola erythrops

355.         Singing Cisticola Cisticola cantans

356.         e Boran Cisticola Cisticola bodessa

357.         Rattling Cisticola Cisticola chiniana

358.         Ashy Cisticola Cisticola cinereolus

359.         e Ethiopian (Winding) Cisticola Cisticola lugubris (galactotes)

360.         Croaking Cisticola Cisticola natalensis

361.         Foxy Cisticola Cisticola troglodytes

362.         Tiny Cisticola Cisticola nanus

363.         Zitting Cisticola Cisticola juncidis

364.         Desert Cisticola Cisticola aridulus

365.         Pectoral-patch Cisticola Cisticola brunnescens

366.         Tawny-flanked Prinia Prinia subflava

367.         Pale Prinia Prinia somalica

368.         Yellow-breasted Apalis Apalis flavida

369.         Red-fronted Warbler Urorhipis rufifrons

370.         Green-backed Camaroptera Camaroptera brachyura

371.         Gray Wren-Warbler Calamonastes simplex

372.         African Bush-Warbler Bradypterus baboecala

373.         Cinnamon Bracken-Warbler Bradypterus cinnamomeus

374.         Sedge Warbler Acrocephalus schoenobaenus

375.         Eurasian Reed-Warbler Acrocephalus scirpaceus

376.         Marsh Warbler Acrocephalus palustris

377.         Great Reed-Warbler Acrocephalus arundinaceus

378.         Lesser Swamp-Warbler Acrocephalus gracilirostris

379.         Olivaceous Warbler Hippolais pallida

380.         Upcher's Warbler Hippolais languida

381.         Olive-tree Warbler Hippolais olivetorum

382.         Icterine Warbler Hippolais icterina

383.         African Yellow Warbler  Chloropeta natalensis

384.         Buff-bellied Warbler Phyllolais pulchella

385.         Yellow-bellied Eremomela Eremomela icteropygialis

386.         Green-backed Eremomela Eremomela canescens

387.         Northern Crombec Sylvietta brachyura

388.         Red-faced Crombec Sylvietta whytii

389.         e Somali Crombec Sylvietta isabellina

390.         Brown Woodland-Warbler Phylloscopus umbrovirens

391.         Willow Warbler Phylloscopus trochilus

392.         Common Chiffchaff Phylloscopus collybita

393.         Wood Warbler Phylloscopus sibilatrix

394.         Blackcap Sylvia atricapilla

395.         Garden Warbler Sylvia borin

396.         Barred Warbler  Sylvia nisoria

397.         Greater Whitethroat Sylvia communis

398.         Lesser Whitethroat  Sylvia curruca

399.         Brown Warbler Parisoma lugens

400.         [E Bale (Brown) Warbler  Parisoma griseaventris (lugens)]

401.         Banded Warbler Parisoma boehmi

402.         Pale Flycatcher Bradornis pallidus

403.         African Gray Flycatcher Bradornis microrhynchus

404.         e Abyssinian Slaty-Flycatcher Melaenornis chocolatinus

405.         Northern Black-Flycatcher Melaenornis edolioides

406.         Spotted Flycatcher  Muscicapa striata

407.         African Dusky Flycatcher Muscicapa adusta

408.         Thrush Nightingale Luscinia luscinia

409.         Common Nightingale Luscinia megarhynchos

410.         Rueppell's Robin-Chat Cossypha semirufa

411.         White-browed Robin-Chat Cossypha heuglini

412.         Red-capped Robin-Chat Cossypha natalensis

413.         Spotted Morning-Thrush Cichladusa guttata

414.         Red-backed Scrub-Robin Cercotrichas leucophrys

415.         Black Redstart Phoenicurus ochruros

416.         Common Redstart Phoenicurus phoenicurus

417.         Whinchat Saxicola rubetra

418.         European Stonechat Saxicola rubicola

419.         African Stonechat Saxicola torquata/albofasciata

420.         Northern Wheatear Oenanthe oenanthe

421.         e Abyssinian Black (Mourning) Wheatear Oenanthe lugens

422.         Pied Wheatear Oenanthe pleschanka

423.         Cyprus Wheatear  Oenanthe cypriaca

424.         Black-eared Wheatear Oenanthe hispanica

425.         Isabelline Wheatear Oenanthe isabellina

426.         e Red-breasted Wheatear Oenanthe bottae

427.         Familiar Chat  Cercomela familiaris

428.         Brown-tailed Chat Cercomela scotocerca

429.         e Sombre Chat Cercomela dubia

430.         Blackstart Cercomela melanura

431.         Moorland Chat Cercomela sordida

432.         e Rueppell's Chat Myrmecocichla melaena

433.         Mocking Cliff-Chat Thamnolaea cinnamomeiventris

434.         e White-winged Cliff-Chat Thamnolaea semirufa

435.         Brown-throated Wattle-eye Platysteira cyanea

436.         Gray-headed Batis Batis orientalis

437.         Black-headed Batis Batis minor

438.         Pygmy Batis Batis perkeo

439.         African Paradise-Flycatcher Terpsiphone viridis

440.         African Hill Babbler Illadopsis abyssinica

441.         Scaly Chatterer Turdoides aylmeri

442.         Rufous Chatterer Turdoides rubiginosus

443.         e White-rumped Babbler Turdoides leucopygius

444.         E Abyssinian Catbird Parophasma galinieri

445.         White-winged Black-Tit Melaniparus leucomelas

446.         e White-backed Black-Tit Melaniparus leuconotus

447.         Somali Tit Melaniparus thruppi

448.         Spotted Creeper Salpornis spilonotus

449.         Mouse-colored Penduline-Tit Anthoscopus musculus

450.         Kenya Violet-backed Sunbird Anthreptes orientalis

451.         Collared Sunbird Hedydipna collaris

452.         Nile Valley Sunbird  Hedydipna metallica

453.         Western Olive Sunbird  Byanomitra obscura

454.         Scarlet-chested Sunbird Chalcomitra senegalensis

455.         Hunter's Sunbird Chalcomitra hunteri

456.         Tacazze Sunbird Nectarinia tacazze

457.         Malachite Sunbird  Nectarinia famosa

458.         Beautiful Sunbird Cinnyris pulchellus

459.         Mariqua Sunbird Cinnyris mariquensis

460.         Black-bellied Sunbird Cinnyris nectarinioides

461.         e Shining Sunbird Cinnyris habessinicus

462.         Variable Sunbird Cinnyris venustus

463.         Broad-ringed (Montane) White-eye Zosterops poliogaster

464.         White-breasted (Abyssinian) White-eye Zosterops abyssinicus

465.         e Dark-headed Oriole Oriolus monacha

466.         African Black-headed Oriole Oriolus larvatus

467.         Rufous-tailed Shrike Lanius isabellinus

468.         Southern Gray Shrike Lanius meridionalis

469.         Gray-backed Fiscal Lanius excubitoroides

470.         Taita Fiscal Lanius dorsalis

471.         Somali Fiscal Lanius somalicus

472.         Common Fiscal Lanius collaris

473.         Masked Shrike Lanius nubicus

474.         Woodchat Shrike Lanius senator

475.         White-rumped Shrike Eurocephalus rueppelli

476.         Brubru Nilaus afer

477.         Northern Puffback Dryoscopus gambensis

478.         Pringle's Puffback Dryoscopus pringlii

479.         Black-crowned Tchagra Tchagra senegala

480.         Three-streaked Tchagra Tchagra jamesi

481.         Red-naped Bushshrike  Laniarius ruficeps

482.         Tropical Boubou Laniarius aethiopicus

483.         Slate-colored Boubou Laniarius funebris

484.         Rosy-patched Bushshrike Rhodophoneus cruentus

485.         Sulphur-breasted Bushshrike Telophorus sulfureopectus

486.         Gray-headed Bushshrike Malaconotus blanchoti

487.         White Helmetshrike Prionops plumatus

488.         Fork-tailed Drongo Dicrurus adsimilis

489.         E Stresemann's Bush-Crow Zavattariornis stresemanni

490.         Redbilled Chough Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax

491.         Cape Crow Corvus capensis

492.         Pied Crow Corvus albus

493.         Somali Crow Corvus edithae

494.         Fan-tailed Raven Corvus rhipidurus

495.         e Thick-billed Raven Corvus crassirostris

496.         Wattled Starling Creatophora cinerea

497.         Greater Blue-eared Glossy-Starling Lamprotornis chalybaeus

498.         Lesser Blue-eared Glossy-Starling Lamprotornis chloropterus

499.         Rueppell's Glossy-Starling Lamprotornis purpuropterus

500.         Golden-breasted Starling Lamprotornis regius

501.         Superb Starling Lamprotornis superbus

502.         Shelley's Starling Lamprotornis shelleyi

503.         Violet-backed Starling Cinnyricinclus leucogaster

504.         White-crowned Starling Spreo albicapillus

505.         Red-winged Starling Onychognathus morio

506.         Slender-billed Starling Onychognathus tenuirostris

507.         e Somali Starling Onychognathus blythii

508.         Bristle-crowned Starling Onychognathus salvadorii

509.         e White-billed Starling Onychognathus albirostris

510.         Sharpe's Starling Pholia sharpii

511.         Magpie Starling  Speculipastor bicolor

512.         Red-billed Oxpecker Buphagus erythrorhynchus

513.         e Shelley's Rufous Sparrow Passer shelleyi

514.         e Swainson's Sparrow Passer swainsonii

515.         Yellow-spotted Petronia Petronia pyrgita

516.         Bush Petronia Petronia dentate

517.         Red-billed Buffalo-Weaver Bubalornis niger

518.         White-headed Buffalo-Weaver Dinemellia dinemelli

519.         Speckle-fronted Weaver Sporopipes frontalis

520.         White-browed Sparrow-Weaver Plocepasser mahali

521.         Gray-headed Social-Weaver Pseudonigrita arnaudi

522.         Black-capped Social-Weaver Pseudonigrita cabanisi

523.         Red-headed Weaver Anaplectes rubriceps

524.         Baglafecht Weaver Ploceus baglafecht

525.         Little Weaver Ploceus luteolus

526.         Black-necked Weaver  Ploceus nigricollis

527.         Spectacled Weaver Ploceus ocularis

528.         Lesser Masked-Weaver Ploceus intermedius

529.         Vitelline Masked-Weaver Ploceus vitellinus

530.         e Rueppell's Weaver Ploceus galbula

531.         Village Weaver Ploceus cucullatus

532.         Speke's Weaver Ploceus spekei

533.         Salvadori’s Weaver  Ploceus dichrocephalus

534.         Red-billed Quelea Quelea quelea

535.         Yellow-crowned Bishop Euplectes afer

536.         Red Bishop  Euplectes orix

537.         Black-winged Bishop  Euplectes hordeaceus

538.         Yellow Bishop Euplectes capensis

539.         Yellow-shouldered Widowbird Euplectes macrourus

540.         White-winged Widowbird Euplectes albonotatus

541.         Red-collared Widowbird Euplectes ardens

542.         Grosbeak Weaver  Amblyospiza albifrons

543.         Yellow-bellied Waxbill Estrilda quartinia

544.         Green-backed Twinspot  Mandingoa nitidula

545.         Abyssinian Crimson-wing Cryptospiza salvadorii

546.         e Fawn-breasted Waxbill Estrilda paludicola

547.         Crimson-rumped Waxbill Estrilda rhodopyga

548.         Common Waxbill Estrilda astrild

549.         Red-rumped Waxbill Estrilda charmosyna

550.         Red-cheeked Cordonbleu Uraeginthus bengalus

551.         Purple Grenadier Uraeginthus ianthinogaster

552.         Green-winged Pytilia Pytilia melba

553.         Red-billed Firefinch Lagonosticta senegala

554.         African Firefinch Lagonosticta rubricata

555.         Jameson's Firefinch Lagonosticta rhodopareia

556.         Cut-throat Amadina fasciata

557.         African Silverbill Lonchura cantans

558.         Bronze Mannikin Lonchura cucullata

559.         Black-and-white Mannikin Lonchura bicolor

560.         Village Indigobird Vidua chalybeata

561.         Straw-tailed Whydah Vidua fischeri

562.         Pin-tailed Whydah Vidua macroura

563.         Eastern Paradise-Whydah Vidua paradisaea

564.         Steel-blue Whydah  Vidua hypocherina

565.         E Ankober Serin Serinus ankoberensis

566.         Yellow-crowned Canary Serinus flavivertex

567.         E Abyssinian Siskin Serinus nigriceps

568.         e African Citril Serinus citrinelloides

569.         Reichenow's Seedeater Serinus reichenowi

570.         e Yellow-rumped Serin Serinus xanthopygius

571.         Yellow-fronted Canary Serinus mozambicus

572.         White-bellied Canary Serinus dorsostriatus

573.         E Yellow-throated Serin Serinus flavigula

574.         E Salvadori's Serin Serinus xantholaemus

575.         e Northern Grosbeak-Canary Serinus donaldsoni

576.         Streaky Seedeater Serinus striolatus

577.         Reichard's Seedeater Serinus reichardi

578.         Ortolan Bunting Emberiza hortulana

579.         House Bunting Emberiza striolata

580.         Cinnamon-breasted Bunting Emberiza tahapisi

581.         Golden-breasted Bunting  Emberiza flaviventris

582.         Somali Bunting Emberiza poliopleura

Abreviations: E = Endemic; e = Near-endemic

Totals : 583 Bird species recorded (16 Endemic; 39 Near-endemic)

Rosy-patched Bush-Shrike


Based on Kingdon 1997

Guereza Colobus Colobus guereza (syn.C.abyssinicus)

Olive Baboon Papio anubis

Gelada Baboon Theropithecus gelada

Grivet Monkey Cercopithecus aethiops aethiops

Vervet Monkey Cercopithecus aethiops pygererythrus

Egyptian Fruit Bat Rousettus aegyptiacus

Giant Root Rat Tachyoryctes rex

Groove-toothed Rat  Parotomys sp

Scrub Hare Lepus saxatilis hagani

Cape Hare Lepus capensis habessenicus

Starck´s Hare Lepus starcki

Unstriped Ground Squirrel Xerus rutilus

Striped Ground Squirrel Euxerus erythrops

Aardvark Orycteropus afer

Rock Hyrax Procavia habessinica

Red Rock Hyrax Procavia spp.

Yellow-spotted Hyrax Heterohyrax brucei

Hippopotamus Hippopotamus amphibius

Golden Jackal Canis aureus

Ethiopian Wolf Canis simensis

Bat-eared Fox Otocyon megalotis

Slender Mongoose Herpestes sanguinea

White-tailed Mongoose Ichneumia albicauda

Common Genet Genetta genetta

Serval Cat Felis serval

African Wild Cat Felis sylvestris

Leopard Panthera pardus

Grevy's Zebra Equus grevyi

Common Warthog Phacochoerus africanus

Desert Warthog Phacochoerus aethiopicus

Greater Kudu Tragelaphus strepsiceros

Lesser Kudu Tragelaphus imberbis

Mountain Nyala Tragelaphus buxtoni

Bushbuck Tragelaphus scriptus (meneliki)

Bush Duiker Sylvicapra grimmia abyssinica

Oribi Ourebia ourebi

Salt's Dik-dik Madoqua saltiana

Guenther’s Dik-dik Madoqua guentheri

Bohor Reedbuck Redunca redunca

Gerenuk Litocranius walleri

Soemmerring's Gazelle Gazella soemmerringi

Grants Gazelle Gazella granti

Beisa Oryx Oryx beisa


43 mammal species recorded