Sri Lanka: Ceylon Sojourn - Birding Tour
Sri Lanka is a great destination for the all-round naturalist, with a list of more than 20 mammal species regularly recorded on this tour (usually including Leopard and Asian Elephant), as well as a profusion of colorful butterflies, and a discrete set of reptiles unique to the island, not of course to mention 250 bird species. From 2019, we are also including a boat trip out of Mirrissa to search for the largest mammal of them all, the massive Blue Whale. On top of all of this is a vibrant, and unique, Buddhist culture, dating back thousands of years, which has led to the birds and other wildlife being both abundant and approachable; and making for a fascinating tour from a cultural perspective. For those who have a particular interest in this, while we will experience some of this firsthand on the tour; we also highly recommend adding on a few extra days in Kandy, the cultural heartland of Sri Lanka. (Tropical Birding can arrange this for you, if desired). Sri Lanka is also an excellent tour for the “foodie”, with the cuisine often also providing a major tour highlight for many too. While this is a well-established, and popular, birding destination among British and European birders in particular, it remains relatively little known, and less visited by those from North America; a mystery, seeing as a series of great parks, and excellent facilities and lodging for almost all of the tour, make this both very comfortable, and accessible to all.
Main Tour: 17 - 30 January ($4550; single supplement: $500)
Extension: 8 - 16 January ($3750; single supplement: $410)
Main Tour: 16 - 29 January ($4550; single supplement: $500)
Extension: 7 - 15 January (Price: TBA)
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Other Tour Details:
Length: 14 Days (23 Days w/ Ext.)
Starting City: Colombo
Ending City: Colombo
Physical Difficulty: Easy/Moderate
Focus: Birding & Wildlife
Max group size: 9+1 Trip Leader +1 Local Guide
Day 1: Arrival in Colombo; to Kitulgala
After arriving in Sri Lanka’s capital, Colombo, we’ll make a short trip to some local marshes near the airport where in addition to many common Sri Lankan birds there is a chance to see Black and Yellow Bitterns. After a couple of hours on site, we’ll leave for Kitulgala in Sri Lanka’s Wet Zone, a drive of two and a half hours. We’ll spend the next two nights at Kitulgala.
*PLEASE NOTE: As most international flights arrive in the middle of the night, and the tour starts early in the morning of this day; some people prefer to arrive a day early and spend the night in Colombo, in order to recover from their flight. If you would like a night in Colombo before the start of the tour, please let us know and we will be happy to help arrange this, although please be aware this will be at extra cost, as this has not been included in the tour fee.
After a break and some lunch, we will begin our birding exploration of the area, with a visit to some of the plantation covered hills close to our hotel, which provide easy birding, and offer some of the easier endemics like Yellow-fronted and Crimson-fronted Barbets, Sri Lanka Hanging-Parrot, Sri Lanka Green Pigeon, and Layard’s Parakeet. This is also a good raptor viewing area, with Black Eagle, Oriental Honey-Buzzard, and Rufous-bellied Eagle all occurring at the site.
Day 2: Kitulgala
Famous as the place where the 1957 Alec Guiness movie “Bridge On the River Kwai” was filmed, it is also rightly famed amongst Asian birders as a rich hunting ground for many “Ceylon” (the old British colonial name for Sri Lanka) endemics. Kitulgala actually comprises a mosaic of habitats, with endemic birds and other wildlife found in each; around the village gardens and lightly wooded areas provide rich hunting grounds for birds like Indian Pitta, Long-billed (Loten’s) Sunbird, and Golden-fronted Leafbird, and a slew of endemics like Sri Lanka Junglefowl (the national bird of Sri Lanka), Sri Lanka Gray Hornbill, the elusive Green-billed Coucal (in areas of Dwarf Bamboo), Chestnut-backed Owlet, Spot-winged Thrush, Black-capped Bulbul, White-throated (Legge’s) Flowerpecker, and Brown-capped and Orange-billed (Ceylon Rufous) Babblers. These areas may also yield Sri Lanka’s national mammal, the massive Grizzled Giant Squirrel.
Day 3: Kitulgala to Sinharaja
After some final birding around Kitulgala, chasing whatever we still need; we shall head to Sinharaja, one of the most famous bird parks in all of Sri Lanka, which holds magnificent areas of pristine tall virgin forest, mixed with gardens and rich, old secondary forest. We may arrive in time to search the gardens and wooded hills close to the lodge in the afternoon, for Plum-headed Parakeets, Black-hooded Cuckooshrike, and further, good chances at endemic species like Crimson-fronted (Ceylon Small) Barbet and Sri Lanka Hanging-Parrot. Three nights will be spent in a simple, but excellent, birder’s lodge (“Blue Magpie Lodge”), just outside the reserve, which offers some of the best, most authentic, and traditional Sri Lankan food of the tour.
Days 4 – 5: Sinharaja
Known as the “Kingdom of the Lion” this forest area is a world-renowned biodiversity hotspot, being a designated biosphere reserve and also a UNESCO World Heritage Site. This is the number one site in the country for Sri Lankan endemic birds, with all but one or two species occurring, plus plenty of other wildlife besides. With two full days in the area, we will focus on some of the species that are either not possible at Kitulgala, or are much rarer there, like Sri Lanka Blue Magpie, Red-faced Malkoha, Crimson-backed Flameback, Ashy-headed Laughingthrush, Sri Lanka Scimitar-Babbler, Sri Lanka Myna, White-faced Starling, and the rare and difficult Sri Lanka Scaly Thrush (the toughest of all the birds to see on this trip), while also arguably our best chances at birds like the recently described Serendib Scops-Owl, Green-billed Coucal, and Sri Lanka Drongo. This area also offers the best shot at Sri Lanka Frogmouth, which are frequently found, in pairs, dozing during the daytime. Keep a close eye on the surrounding hills may also yield raptors like the scarce Legge’s Hawk-Eagle, Rufous-bellied Eagle, or Crested Hawk-Eagle.
Day 6: Sinharaja to Weligama
After some final birding trying to track down any gaps in our list at Sinharaja, we head to Weligama near the southern tip of the island, for the night. This will be our convenient base for taking a whale watching trip to the following morning.
Day 7: Blue Whale boat trip; to Udawalawe
Sri Lanka is a great overall natural history destination, even on a birding trip focusing on getting all of the endemic birds like this one. By this point we are likely to have seen a couple of endemic primates, a swathe of butterflies, and some interesting reptiles too, and also have seen the majority of the endemic birds. This day illustrates this diversity well; in the morning we’ll take a boat trip out of Mirrissa in search of the world’s largest mammal, the Blue Whale. We might see some birds too, like Bridled Tern or White-bellied Sea-Eagle. In the afternoon, birding will be the focus again, as we head into the Dry Zone and Udawalawe National Park, where we will overnight. On the first leg of the trip we will have birded (at times), within lush, dense, rainforest; however, in this area we will be birding open grasslands, wetlands and stunted dry woodland and scrub, of a completely different nature to that experienced before. During the afternoon, we will be visiting some areas just outside Udawalawe National Park, for a mix of songbirds and waterbirds. The waterbirds are likely to include Spot-billed Pelican and Painted Stork, while in the surrounding scrub and woodland we may find Marshall’s Iora, Sri Lanka Woodshrike, or Yellow-eyed Babbler. While birding, other animals may also get a look in again, like Asian Elephant.
Day 8: Udawalawe NP to Tissamaharama
We will spend the morning on board a jeep, as we take a game drive inside Udawalawe National Park. This will be the first of three game drives of the tour, by jeep, in three different parks of southeast Sri Lanka (Udawalawe, Yala, and Bundala). Udawalawe is famed for its large concentration of Asian Elephants in particular, and we are likely to see some herds of these as we stop in on the mosaic of habitats found inside the park borders. Indian Rollers are likely to feature for the first time, and we will be, especially, on the lookout for two species of malkoha: Sirkeer and Blue-faced Malkohas. Like all three of the parks to be visited in the coming days, these are likely to offer the most relaxing and easy birding of the tour, with much of this being done from the specially adapted jeeps for game drives, which affords excellent bird and game viewing, as well as photography for those carrying cameras on the tour; getting extreme close-ups of birds like Blue-tailed and Green Bee-eaters, Painted Storks and Asian Openbills, and perhaps even a roosting Brown Fish-Owl, is not only possible, but likely! Other possible birds inside the park include Barred Buttonquail, the rare Orange-headed Thrush, our first chance at Forest Wagtail, Lesser Adjutant and Woolly-necked Stork. Aside from the avian fare, animals like Gray Tufted Langur, Toque Macaque, and Ruddy Mongoose may also feature too.
Day 9: Yala NP
Yala is Sri Lanka’s premier game-viewing park, and one of the most popular wilderness areas on the island. The reason for this? In a word: Leopards. Yala holds the highest density of Leopards anywhere on the planet; the absence of other large cats, present where they occur in Africa for example, means that Leopards occur there in extraordinary quantities, never matched in Africa, ironically where they are better known from. We will have a full day in the park at Yala, and in doing so, have a reasonable chance of running into this must-see cat, with sightings occurring on most days at Yala. Indeed, the park is a mammal hotspot, with some days yielding more than ten species of mammal; other possibilities are Chital (Spotted Deer-the main prey item of the Leopard), Sambar, Golden Jackal, and Wild Asian Water Buffalo. Yala is also a scenic park with prominent rocky outcrops making for a wild and wonderful landscape in which to do our birding and game viewing. Birding wise, we have a shot at Small Pratincole, Orange-breasted Green Pigeon, Pied and Gray-bellied Cuckoos, Ashy-crowned Sparrow-Lark, White-rumped Shama, and even male Indian Peafowls, or “peacocks” in the throes of full display. At dusk, we will return to Tissa for the night. After dinner, we may take a short drive to look for Jungle Owlet or Indian Scops-Owl, in the neighborhood of our hotel.
*PLEASE NOTE: Sometimes the order here is switched around, with day 9 and 10 being done in the opposite order (i.e. Yala would then be done on day 10, not 9 as listed here). This is usually decided at the time by the Tropical Birding tour leader, based on local information, weather and so forth.
Day 10: Tissamaharama and Bundala NP
In the morning we’ll stick close to our hotel, birding the edge of one of the big “tanks” (or reservoirs), which provides good birding of its own. Our primary target will be the scarce, local, Sri Lankan race of White-naped Woodpecker in the trees surrounding this huge lake, which may also hold Jungle Owlet and Jerdon’s Leafbird, among others. While, on the tank itself, we have a chance to find the rare Watercock, Black and Yellow Bitterns, or Cotton Pygmy-Goose. There is also a huge roost of Indian Flying-Foxes (a huge, fruit-eating bat species) that make for great photos in this area too. We’ll return to our near hotel for lunch, before take an afternoon game drive, the last of the tour, in Bundala National Park, an internationally recognised RAMSAR site for its significance as a hotspot for migratory waterbirds. Among the possibilities among the shorebird horde include Small Pratincole, Red-necked Phalarope, Eurasian Curlew, Kentish, Little Ringed and Common Ringed Plovers, Curlew Sandpiper, and Little Stint. As we head out of the park around dusk, we will get more chances for two nightjar species (Jerdon’s and Indian), if needed.
Day 11: Tissamaharama to the Hill Country
After some final time around Tissa, searching for any missing birds like Greater Painted-Snipe or Ruddy-breasted Crake, we will travel out of the Dry Zone, and ascend into the Central Highlands of Sri Lanka. En-route to the “city of light”, Nuwara Eliya, (where we’ll spend the next two nights), we enter into some truly scenic areas, including Rawana Falls, with its attendant crowds snapping photos, and attendant Toque Macaques raiding the tourists! Nuwara Eliya is in the heart of “Tea Country”, the Hill Country, where the finest Ceylon Tea is produced and exported to the world under well-known brand names like Lipton, Dilma, and PG Tips. The city is also nicknamed “Little England”, as the crop-covered hills and climate suggest that country. Indeed, the sharp rise in altitude (to nearly 2000m/6560ft), will be accompanied by a likely change in the weather, which may resemble the cooler climate and rainy habits of an English summer! In the afternoon, we shall bird the hills behind the city, for some of our final remaining endemic birds of the tour; Sri Lanka White-eyes adorn almost all of the flocks in the area, and we also have our first shot at the stunning Yellow-eared Bulbul, the rare Sri Lanka Whistling-Thrush (actually a flycatcher), and tough-to-see Sri Lanka Bush-Warbler. We will also get further chances at Sri Lanka Scaly Thrush and Legge’s Hawk-Eagle in this area too, along with Indian Blue Robin and Gray-headed Canary-Flycatcher.
Day 12: Horton Plains NP
This day will be in marked contrast to all other experienced on the tour. While much of the trip is spent in the steamy lowland jungles of the Wet Zone, or the open hot grasslands and wooded areas of the Dry Zone, this day will see us visit the highest site of the tour, in Horton Plains National Park, which offers the very best landscapes in the country. Birding this area, we will be among cloudforests and Rhododendron-covered hillsides, completely unlike anything seen before on this trip. While will be some major avian targets still waiting for us on this day, it may be as popular for the scenery, as it is for the birds. Several deep ravine cut through the hillsides, and have become a popular pilgrimage for local and international tourists; the deepest of these is known as the “World’s End”, while the smaller of the two is nicknamed the “Mini World’s End”. The trail to these is swathed in beautiful, wet dwarf forest, and grasslands, which are home to the endemic race of Indian Blackbird (a possible future split as an endemic species), Hill Swallows, and the Sri Lanka Woodpigeon. Other areas of the park offer chances at two of the hardest of all the 32 endemic species on the island; Sri Lanka Bush-Warbler and Sri Lanka Whistling-Thrush, as well as the endemic, and poorly-named, Dull-blue Flycatcher. The area is also a good stake-out for a hardy endemic reptile too, the Black-lipped Lizard, which can often be found too. In the afternoon We will arrive back in Nuwara Eliya in time to explore the ornamental grounds of Victoria Park, a great place to pick up two key hill country bird; the boldly-marked Pied Thrush and striking Kashmir Flycatcher winter in the park each year, and it ranks as one of the best sites on Earth to see these species. A last night will be spent in Nuwara Eliya.
Day 13: Nuwara Eliya to Kandy
The final leg of the tour will see us move into another site in the Hill Country, the scenic city of Kandy, which envelopes a large lake. However, before reaching Kandy, there will be time to visit a factory for one of Sri Lanka’s most famous exports, tea. Sri Lanka, or Ceylon, as it was formerly known when under British rule, is world famous, as the producer of some of the finest teas in the World, colloquially known as “Ceylon Tea”, although there are, of course, a wide variety among these. A short stop will be made at a factory, right along our route, to see how the famous Ceylon Tea is produced, and to taste test some of this, and also to purchase these teas, which are usually reserved only for export, and are therefore not widely available in-country. Hill Swallows also feature regularly around the factory, which is located in the hill country. Kandy is revered amongst Sri Lankans as their cultural heartland, and is the location of the “Temple of the Tooth”, where the actual tooth of the Buddha is said to be housed in a tomb. Short, cultural add-ons, to visit this and other nearby areas, are recommended for those with a wider slant than birding, and can easily be arranged by Tropical Birding. Kandy was the former capital, before the British, in their former colonial grip on the country. moved it to Colombo. However, in the hearts of most Sri Lankans, Kandy is still their capital, culturally at least. On the edge of this wonderful city lies the rainforest of Udawattakele, which offers up further, final, chances at species like Crimson-backed Flameback, Brown-capped Babbler, White-rumped Shama, Black-backed Dwarf-Kingfisher, and even the local race of the rare Spot-bellied Eagle-Owl (or Forest Eagle-Owl), although luck is always needed to see the latter. It is also a great spot for Brown Wood-Owl, with a single bird regularly found day roosting at the site.
Day 14: Kandy Hills and Departure
We will spend our final morning visiting some of the cultural wonders of Kandy, namely the “Temple of the Tooth”. Then we drive a few hours back to Colombo to connect with our international departure flights.
*PLEASE NOTE: As most international flights leave in the middle of the night, and our arrival in Colombo is likely to be late in the afternoon, there is likely to be a long wait at the airport. However, if you would like day use of a local hotel room, please let us know and we can arrange that for you. Please be aware this though will be at extra cost, as this is not included in the tour fee.
Southern India Extension
This extension is for those who want to double their “haul” of endemics by adding just over a week to their total trip. Although south India shares many birds with Sri Lanka, it is also rich in endemics, boasting over 30. Some are confined to the remnant shola forests and rocky grasslands which grow in its impressive mountains, which boast peaks over 8000 feet (2400m) high. These montane endemics include a couple of handsome laughingthrushes and robins, the smart Black-and-orange and Nilgiri Flycatchers, and several others. A larger proportion of the endemics are confined to the low-elevation forests that grow in the moist strip between the mountains and the coast. These include some beautiful birds like Gray Junglefowl, Malabar Parakeet, Crimson-backed Sunbird, and White-bellied Treepie. This is also an excellent area for owls, and both Brown and Mottled Wood-Owls can be found. With a bit of luck we might even see Sri Lanka Bay Owl or Spot-bellied Eagle-Owl. Yet another set of birds is found in the dry woodlands on the northern and eastern flanks of the mountains. Most of these are widespread in the Indian subcontinent, but many of them aren’t found in Sri Lanka, and will provide another windfall of new birds for those on their first trip to the region.
Day 1: Arrival in Kochi, then drive to Thattekad
After landing at the bustling Kochi International Airport, we’ll drive a couple hours inland to Thattekad and the humid forests of the Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary.
Days 2-3: Thattekad
The Salim Ali sanctuary and its surrounds hold the majority of south India’s endemic birds. There are also other prizes here like Heart-spotted and White-bellied Woodpeckers, neither of which is found in Sri Lanka. With a bit of luck, we may see several owls in day roosts, including Brown and Mottled Wood-Owls, and maybe even the Sri Lanka Bay Owl. Sri Lanka Frogmouths are also normally easy to see in broad daylight.
Day 4: Thattekad to Munnar
Climbing out of the lowlands, we’ll make a stop at a site for the rare and localized Yellow-throated Bulbul. Then we’ll continue up to the hill station town of Munnar, with its expansive tea estates and pleasantly moderate climate.
Day 5: Munnar
We have a full day to bird the shola forests and grasslands of Munnar. The Palani Laughingthrush and White-bellied Blue Robin are usually easy to find, while the Nilgiri Pipit and Broad-tailed Grassbird require a bit of luck. As long as the Eravikulam National Park is open, we will ascend to its heights for a wonderful view, and a chance to see the rare Nilgiri Tahr, a wild goat that is endemic to these southern mountains. We’ll also make a trip to a rather far-flung shola which holds the rare and skulking Wynaad Laughingthrush.
Day 6: Munnar to Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary to Ooty
Today we cross the Palakkad Gap, an expanse of lowlands that lies between southern India’s mountain massifs. On the way down from Munnar, we’ll stop at the Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary. The dry woodlands here hold species typical of much of the subcontinent, like Small Minivet, Jungle Babbler, and Black-headed Cuckooshrike. This is also one of the best places in the world to see the rare Spot-bellied Eagle-Owl, which sometimes sleeps in well-known day roosts. Leaving Chinnar, we’ll cross from the Indian state of Kerala into Tamil Nadu, which has quite a different culture and language from Kerala. In some other parts of the world it could easily be a different country, but it’s just another fascinating enclave of sprawling and dazzlingly diverse “Incredible India”. By evening, and after a long drive through the bustling lowlands, we’ll climb up to Udagamandalam, which is more commonly and conveniently known as “Ooty”.
Day 7: Ooty to Mudumalai
We’ll spend the morning searching for a couple of montane endemic birds which are only found in this northern massif, namely Nilgiri Laughingthrush and Nilgiri Blue-Robin. In Ooty we also have chances at any other montane endemics like Nilgiri Woodpigeon, which might have eluded us earlier. In the afternoon, we’ll descend to the dry and dusty woodlands of Mudumalai National Park – yet another dramatic change of scenery in this diverse part of the world.
Day 8: Mudumalai NP
We have a full day to explore Mudumalai. One of our main targets will be the rare White-bellied Minivet. Sometimes, depending on the weather in the mountains, this area is also good for the mysterious Nilgiri Thrush.
Day 9: Mudumalai to Coimbatore
After a final morning of birding Mudumalai, we’ll drive several hours to the rather sleepy Coimbatore airport, where we catch outbound flights.
PACE: Moderate. Birding is usually best in the morning, so fairly early starts can be expected; breakfast is typically at 5:30am; there will be opportunities for downtime after lunch on at least five days of the tour. At least three breakfasts and three lunches will be packed lunches. At least five days of the trip involve drives of 3-4 hours. Jeeps are needed to get to Sinharaja; it’s about an hour each way along a very rough, unpaved road. We will be using official jeeps to travel inside the parks of Udawalawe, Yala and Bundala. These are good, comfortable game-viewing jeeps, but it is necessary to spend long periods inside them, since you are only permitted to get out of the vehicle in designated areas. The pace of the extension will be similar, though without as many opportunities for mid-day siestas. The longest drive, of about 7 hours (without stops) is on Day 6 of the extension.
PHYSICAL DIFFICULTY: Moderate. Much of the birding is along easy, wide open tracks or dirt roads, but there will also be some longer walks on trails, some of which are slightly inclined and a bit slippery – a walking stick helps a lot. Most days will involve 2-3 miles (3.2-4.8 km) of walking, though there will be one longer hike of about 4 miles (6.4 km) at Sinharaja, and some participants may want to walk to World’s End and back at Horton Plains (5 mi/8 km). The highest point of the tour is about 7500 ft (2300 m). There is a boat trip to search for Blue Whales on day 7, so please be aware that some might suffer from motion sickness, although the sae here at this time is usually reasonably calm.
There will be lots of walking on the extension, though generally on wide and flat trails and roads. At Munnar, there may be an optional strenuous hike to search for Broad-tailed Grassbird.
CLIMATE: Warm to hot in the lowlands with daytime highs of about 91°F/33°C and nighttime lows of about 72°F/22°C. In the wet zone it is also quite humid. In the highlands (days 11-13), lows could be down to about 41°F/5°C. While this is the dry season for much of Sri Lanka, the Wet Zone can be wet year round, and so some rain can be expected. The weather on the extension is similar.
ACCOMMODATION: Good to excellent for both the main tour and the extension. On the main tour, all of the hotels and lodges have private en-suite bathrooms, 24-hour electricity, air conditioning, and full-time hot water. Except for Sinharaja, all accommodations have wifi, though it is often slow.
PHOTOGRAPHY: While there are no feeders at any sites, there can be some good photo opportunities on this tour, especially during the game drives in the Dry Zone (days 8-10). On these days we will using open-sided jeeps, which are set up for game viewing, and act very well for getting photos of animals and birds. On these drives large waterbirds, bee-eaters, raptors, and mammals like elephants, buffalo, and deer often feature. While the photography in the rainforests of the Wet Zone (mainly days 1-7) is more challenging, the birds of Sri Lanka have not been widely persecuted and can be abundant in some places, making this a surprisingly good bird tour for photography. The photographic opportunities on the extension are also excellent. The boat trip out to search for Blue Whales can also be productive for birders with cameras too.
TRAVEL REQUIREMENTS: A valid passport is required; it must be valid for at least months beyond your date of departure. All visitors need to obtain an electronic travel authorization in advance, but this is usually easy to obtain online, both for Sri Lanka and India. Travel requirements are subject to change, please double-check requirements with the nearest embassy or consulate, or ask our office staff for help.
WHAT’S INCLUDED?: Tips to driver and driver’s assistant, tip to local guides and hotel/guesthouse staff; accommodation from night of day 1 through to night of day 13 on the main tour and night of day 1 through to night of day 8 on the extension; meals from lunch on day 1 to lunch on day 14 on the main tour and lunch on day 1 to lunch on day 9 on the extension; safe drinking water throughout; tea is also typically provided with most dinners and some lunches; Tropical Birding tour leader with scope and audio gear from morning of day 1 to afternoon of day 14 of the main tour, and afternoon of day 1 to evening of day 9 on the extension; one local driver throughout; boat trip to look for Blue Whales on day 7; required local guides/rangers in all national parks visited; one local Sri Lankan guide throughout the main tour; one arrival and one departure airport transfer per person (transfers may be shared with other participants of the same tour if they are on the same flight); ground transport for the group to all sites in the itinerary; jeep transfers in and out of Sinharaja; one morning game drive (by jeep) in Udawalawe on day 8; one all-day game drive (by jeep) in Yala on day 9; one half day jeep drive in Bundala on day 10; entrance fees to all birding sites mentioned in the itinerary; a printed and bound checklist to keep track of your sightings (given to you at the start of the tour – only electronic copies can be provided in advance).
WHAT’S NOT INCLUDED?: Optional tips to the Tropical Birding tour leader; tips for any luggage porters used; international flights (i.e. the flight India and Sri Lanka for the pre-tour extension is not included); visa/electronic travel authorization fees; snacks; additional drinks apart from those included; alcoholic beverages; travel insurance; excursions not included in the tour itinerary; extra nights or time in hotels at the start or end of the tour (as international flights arrive and leave in the middle of the night, some people prefer to arrive a day earlier to have some downtime after their international flights before the first day’s activities; and some also like to have day use of a hotel room at the end of the tour to prevent a long wait in the airport); extras in hotels such as laundry service, minibar, room service, telephone calls, and personal items; medical fees; other items or services not specifically mentioned as being included.
NOTE ABOUT FLIGHT TIMES: On Day 1 of the south India pre-trip, participants should plan to arrive in Kochi no later than 12pm. In the event that you choose a flight arriving on the previous day, we will be happy to help arrange a hotel for this extra night.